Nutrient supplements from selected botanicals mediated immune modulation of the tumor microenvironment and antitumor mechanism
Specific extracts of selected vegetables (SV) have been shown to benefit the survival of stage IIIb/IV non-small cell lung cancer patients in phase I/II studies and is currently in a phase III trial. However, the underlying mechanism of SV-mediated antitumor immune responses has not been elucidated. Our results indicate that SV modulated the NK and adoptive T cell immune responses in antitumor efficacy. Furthermore, antitumor effects of SV were also mediated by innate myeloid cell function, which requires both TLR and β-glucan signaling in a MyD88/TRIF and Dectin-1-dependent manner, respectively. Additionally, SV treatment reduced granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) infiltration into the tumor and limited monocytic MDSC toward the M2-like functional phenotype. Importantly, SV treatment enhanced antigen-specific immune responses by augmenting the activation of antigen-specific TH1/TH17 cells in secondary lymphoid organs and proliferative response, as well as by reducing the Treg population in the tumor microenvironment, which was driven by SV-primed activated M-MDSC. Our results support the idea that SV can subvert immune-tolerance state in the tumor microenvironment and inhibit tumor growth. The present study suggests that features, such as easy accessibility, favorable clinical efficacy, no detectable side effects and satisfactory safety make SV a feasible, appealing and convincing adjuvant therapy for the treatment of cancer patients and prevent tumor recurrence and/or metastases.